The following ideas and articles are gathered from multiple online sources to provide helpful information for your questions and general information. These articles were written by experts in their respective fields and are not original writings of Tom’s Brew Shop. We hope you enjoy and learn as we have.

Brewing Terms:
The following terms will be used throughout these instructions. Many of the terms come from German and appropriate pronunciations are given. On the other hand, German pronunciation is optional.

Ale
: A beer brewed from a top-fermenting yeast with a relatively short, warm fermentation.
Alpha Acid Units (AAU)
A homebrewing measurement of Hops. Equal to the weight in ounces multiplied by the percent of Alpha Acids.

Attenuation 
The degree of conversion of sugar to alcohol and CO2.
Beer
 Any beverage made by fermenting malted barley and seasoning with Hops.
Cold Break 
Proteins that coagulate and fall out of solution when the wort is rapidly cooled prior to Pitching the yeast.

Conditioning
 An aspect of Secondary Fermentation in which the yeast refine the flavors of the final beer. Conditioning continues in the bottle.
Fermentation
 The total conversion of malt sugar to beer, defined here as two parts, Primary and Secondary.
Hops
 Hop vines are grown in cool climates and brewers make use of the cone-like flowers. The dried cones are available in Pellets, Plugs, or whole.
Hot Break
 Proteins that coagulate and fall out of solution during the wort boil.

Gravity
 Like density, gravity describes the concentration of malt sugar in the wort. The specific gravity of water is 1.000 at 59F. Typical beer worts range from 1.035
1.055 before fermentation (Original Gravity).
International Bittering Units (IBU) 
A more precise method of measuring Hops. Equal to the AAU multiplied by factors for percent utilization, wort volume and wort gravity.
Krausen (kroy-zen)
 Used to refer to the foamy head that builds on top of the beer during fermentation. Also an advanced method of priming.

Lager
 A beer brewed from a bottom-fermenting yeast and given a long cool fermentation.

Pitching
 Term for adding the yeast to the fermenter.
Primary Fermentation 
The initial fermentation activity marked by the evolution of carbon dioxide and Krausen. Most of the total attenuation occurs during this phase.
Priming 
The method of adding a small amount of fermentable sugar prior to bottling to give the beer carbonation.

Racking
 The careful siphoning of the beer away from the Trub.
Secondary Fermentation
 A period of settling and conditioning of the beer after Primary Fermentation and before bottling.

Trub (trub or troob) 
The sediment at the bottom of the fermenter consisting of Hot and Cold Break material and dead yeast.
Wort (wart or wert) 
The malt-sugar solution that is boiled prior to fermentation.
Zymurgy
 The science of Brewing and Fermentation.

BREWING BASICS:
These instructions are designed for the first-time Brewer. What follows can be considered an annotated recipe for a fool-proof Ale beer. Why an Ale beer? Because Ales are the simplest to brew. Brewing Beer is simple and complicated, easy and hard. Compare it to fishing – Sit on the end of the dock with a can of worms and a cane pole and you will catch fish. Going after a specific kind of fish is when fishing gets complicated. Brewing the specific kind of beer you want is the same thing. There are many different styles of beer and many techniques to brew them.
Brewing a beer is a combination of several general processes. First is the mixing of ingredients and bringing the solution (wort) to a boil. Second is the cooling of the wort to the fermentation temperature. Next the wort is transferred to the fermenter and the yeast is added. After fermentation, the raw beer is siphoned off the yeast sediment and bottled with a little extra sugar to provide the carbonation. But there are three important things to keep in mind every time you brew: Cleanliness, Preparation and Good Record Keeping.
Cleanliness
Cleanliness is the foremost concern of the brewer. After all, Fermentation is the manipulation of living organisms, the yeast. Providing good growing conditions for the yeast in the beer also provides good growing conditions for other micro-organisms, including bacteria. Cleanliness must be maintained throughout every stage of the brewing process.
Preparation
Take the time to prepare your brewing area. Have the ingredients ready on the counter. Prepare your brewing water. Have the ice on- hand to cool the wort when its done boiling. Is the Fermenter clean and sanitized? Make sure that all equipment is clean and ready to go before starting. Patience and planning are necessities.
Record Keeping
Always keep good notes on what ingredients, amounts and times were used in the brewing process. The brewer needs to be able to repeat good batches and learn from poor ones.

BASIC INGREDIENTS:
The following is a basic beer recipe:
5-7 pounds of Hopped Pale Malt Extract syrup. (OG of 1.038 – 1.053)
5 gallons of water.
 1-2 ounces of Hops (if desired for more hop character) 
1 packet of dry Ale yeast, plus 1 packet for back-up. 
3/4 cup corn sugar for Priming.
 This is a basic Ale beer and quite tasty. You will be amazed. Further descriptions of the ingredients follow.
Malt Extract: Using Malt Extract is what makes first time brewing simple. Malt Extract is the concentrated sugars extracted from malted barley. It is sold in both the liquid (LME) and powdered forms (DME). The syrups are approximately 20 percent water, so 4 pounds of dry Malt Extract (DME) is roughly equal to 5 pounds of Malt Extract (LME) syrup. Malt Extract is available in both the Hopped and Unhopped varieties. Screen the ingredients to avoid corn sugar. Munton & Fison, Alexanders, Coopers, Edme and Premier are all good brands. Laaglander is another good brand but the brewer needs to be aware that it contains extra unfermentables which add to the body, making the beer finish with an FG of about 1.020.
Using Unhopped extract means adding 1-2 ounces of Hops during the boil for bittering and flavor. Hops may also be added to the Hopped Extracts towards the end of the boil for more Hop character in the final beer. Unhopped extract is preferable for brewers making their own recipes.
A rule of thumb is 1 pound of malt extract (syrup) per gallon of water for a light bodied beer. One and a half pounds per gallon produces a richer, full bodied beer. One pound of malt extract syrup typically yields a gravity of 1.034 – 38 when dissolved in one gallon of water. Dry malt will yield about 1.040 – 43. Malt extract is commonly available in Pale, Amber and Dark varieties, and can be mixed depending on the style of beer desired. Wheat malt extract is also available and more new extracts are coming out each year. With the variety of extract now available, there is almost no beer style that cannot be brewed using extract alone.
The next step in complexity for the homebrewer is to learn how to extract the sugars from the malted grain himself. This process, called Mashing, allows the brewer to take more control of producing the wort. This type of homebrewing is referred to as All-Grain brewing.

BEGINNING THE BOIL:
Bring 2 1/2 gallons water to a boil in a large pot. Meanwhile, re-hydrate the dry yeast. When the water is boiling, remove from the heat. Add all the malt syrup to the hot water and stir until dissolved. Make sure there is no syrup stuck to the bottom of the pot by scraping the bottom of the pot with the spoon while stirring. It is very important not to burn any malt stuck to the bottom when the pot is returned to the heat. Burnt sugar tastes terrible.
The following stage is critical. The pot needs to be watched continuously. Return the pot to the heat and bring to a rolling boil, stirring frequently. Start timing the hour.
If you are adding bittering hops, do so now.
A foam may start to rise and form a smooth surface. This is good. If the foam suddenly billows over the side, this is a boil over (Bad). By the way, adding hop pellets at this stage tends to trigger a boilover if the pot is really full. Murphy’s Law… The liquid is very unstable at this point and remains so until it goes through the Hot Break (when the wort stops foaming). This may take 5-20 minutes. The foaming can be controlled by lowering the heat and/or spraying some water on the surface from a spray bottle. The heat control using an electric range is poor. Try to maintain a rolling boil. Boiling 2.5 – 3 gallons can be maintained fairly easily on an electric stove. Boiling the full 5 gallons of water on electric ranges is almost impossible (not enough heat) and dangerous to lift when the boil is over.
Continue the rolling boil for the remainder of the hour. Stir occasionally to prevent scorching. There may be a change in color and aroma and there will be particles floating in the wort. This is not a concern, its the hot break material. If you are adding the finishing hops, do so during the last fifteen minutes. Add during the last five minutes if more hop aroma is desired. This provides less time for the volatile oils to boil away.

COOLING THE WORT:
At the end of the boil, cooling the wort is very important. While it is above 130F, bacteria and wild yeasts are inhibited. It is very susceptible to oxygen damage as it cools though. There are also sulfur compounds that evolve while the wort is hot. If the wort is cooled slowly these di-methyl sulfides can dissolve back into the wort causing cabbage or cooked vegetable flavors in the final beer. The objective is to rapidly cool the wort to below 80F before oxidation or contamination can occur. Here is one preferred method for cooling the wort.
Place the pot in a sink or tub filled with cold/ice water that can be circulated around the hot pot. While the cold water is flowing around the pot, gently stir the wort in a circular pattern so the maximum amount of wort is moving against the sides of the pot. If the water gets warm, replace with cold water. The wort will cool to 80F in about 20 minutes. When the pot is still warm to the touch, the temperature is close enough.
Pour the reserved 2.5 gallons of water into the sanitized fermenter. Pour the warm wort into it, allowing vigorous churning and splashing. Oxidation of the wort is minimal at these temperatures and this provides the dissolved oxygen that the yeast need to reproduce. Combining the warm wort with the cool water should bring the mixture to fermentation temperature. It is best for the yeast if the pitching temperature is the same as the fermentation temperature. For Ale yeasts, the fermentation temperature range is 65-75F. (The temperatures mentioned are not absolutely critical and a thermometer is not absolutely necessary, but is nice to have.)
Note: Do not add commercial ice to the wort to cool. Commercial Ice harbors lots of dormant bacteria that would love a chance to work on the new beer. Bottled Drinking Water is usually pasteurized or otherwise sanitized to inhibit contamination.

PITCHING THE YEAST:
If the Dry Yeast Starter is not foaming or churning, use the backup yeast. Repeat the re-hydration procedure and then pitch the Yeast Starter into the beer, making sure to add it all. Put the lid in place and seal it. Do not put the airlock in quite yet. Place a piece of clean Saran Wrap over the hole in the lid and cover it with your hand.
With the fermenter tightly sealed, pick it up, sit in a chair, put the fermenter on your knees and shake it several minutes to churn it up. This mixes the yeast into the wort and provides more dissolved oxygen that the yeast need to grow. Wipe off any wort around the hole with a paper towel that is wet with bleach water and place the sanitized airlock and rubber stopper in the lid. The airlock should be filled to the line with the bleach water solution.
Active fermentation should start within 12 hours. It can be longer for liquid yeasts because of lower cell counts, about 24 hours.

FERMENTATION:
Put the fermenter in a protected area like the bathtub. If foam escapes it will run down the drain and is easy to clean. The temperature here is usually about the most stable in the house. Animals and small children are fascinated by the smell and noises from the airlock, so keep them away.
The airlock should be bubbling in twelve hours. Maintain a consistent temperature if possible. Fluctuating temperature strains the yeast and could impair fermentation. On the other hand, if the temperature drops overnight and the bubbling stops, simply move it to a warmer room and it should pick up again. The yeast does not die, it merely goes dormant. It should not be heated too quickly as this can thermally shock the yeast. In summary, if the temperature deviates too much or goes above 80F, the fermentation can be affected, which then affects the flavor. If it goes too low, the ale yeast will go into hibernation.
The fermentation process can be very vigorous or slow; either is fine. The secret is in providing enough active yeast. Fermentation time is a sum of several variables with the most significant probably being temperature. It is very common for an ale with an active ferment to be done in a short time. It could last a few days, a week, maybe longer. Any of the above is acceptable. Three days at 70F may be regarded as typical for the simple ale being described here.
If the fermentation is so vigorous that the foam pops the airlock out of the lid, just rinse it out with bleach water and wipe off the lid before replacing it. Contamination is not a big problem at this point. With so much coming out of the fermenter, not much gets in. Once the bubbling slows down however, do not open the lid to peek. The beer is still susceptible to infections, particularly anaerobic ones like Lacto Bacillus, found in your mouth. It will do just fine if left alone for a minimum of two weeks.
The fermentation of malt sugars into beer is a complicated biochemical process. It is more than just attenuation, which can be regarded as the primary activity. Total fermentation is better defined as two phases, the Primary or Attenuative phase and a Secondary or Conditioning phase. The yeast do not end Phase 1 before beginning Phase 2, the processes occur in parallel, but the conditioning processes occur more slowly. This is why beer (and wine) improves with age. Tasting the beer at bottling time will show rough edges that will disappear after a few weeks in the bottle. Because the conditioning process is a function of the yeast, it follows that the greater yeast mass in the fermenter is more effective at conditioning the beer than the smaller amount of suspended yeast in the bottle. Leaving the beer in the fermenter for a total of two or even three weeks will go a long way to improving the final beer. This will also allow time for more sediment to settle out before bottling, resulting in a clearer beer.

SECONDARY FERMENTATION:
Using a two stage fermentation requires a good understanding of the fermentation process. At any time, racking the beer can adversely affect it because of potential oxygen exposure and contamination risk. Racking the beer before the Primary fermentation phase has completed can result in a stuck or incomplete fermentation and too high a final gravity. Simple extract ales do not need to be racked to a secondary fermenter. It can improve clarity and aspects of the flavor, but wait until the second or third beer when you have more experience with the brewing processes.
The reason for racking to a Secondary Fermenter is to prevent a yeast breakdown called autolysis, and the resulting bad taste imparted to the beer. This will not be a problem for these relatively short fermentation-time ale beers. Other beer types, like Lagers and some high-gravity beer styles, need to be racked to a secondary because these sit on the yeast for a longer period of time.
The following is a general schedule for a simple ale beer using a secondary fermenter. Allow the Primary Fermentation stage to wind down. This will be 3-4 days after pitching when the bubbling rate drops off dramatically to about 1-5 per minute. Using a sanitized siphon (no sucking!), rack the beer off the trub into a another clean fermenter and affix an airlock. The beer should still be fairly cloudy with suspended yeast. Racking from the primary may be done at any time after primary fermentation has more-or-less completed.(Although if it has been more than two weeks, you may as well bottle.) Most brewers will notice a brief increase in activity after racking, but then all activity may cease. This is very normal. Fermentation (Conditioning) is still taking place, so just leave it alone. A minimum useful time in the secondary fermenter is two weeks. Overly long times in the secondary (for ales- more than 6 weeks) may require the addition of fresh yeast at bottling time for good carbonation. This is usually not a concern.
For more information, see the Recommended Reading section.
A Word About Hydrometers, a hydrometer measures the relative specific gravity between pure water and water with sugar dissolved in it. The hydrometer is used to gauge fermentation by measuring one aspect of it, attenuation. Attenuation is the conversion of sugar to ethanol by the yeast. Water has a specific gravity of 1.000. Beers typically have a final gravity between 1.015 and 1.005. Champagnes and meads can have gravities less than 1.000, because of the large percentage of ethyl alcohol, which is less than 1. By the way, hydrometer readings are standardized to 59F, since liquid gravity (density) is dependent on temperature. Temperature correction tables are usually sold with a hydrometer or are available from Chemistry Handbooks (ex. CRCs).
Here is a short table of corrections:
50F => -.0006
55F => -.0003
59F => 0
65F => +.0006
70F => +.0012
75F => +.0018
80F => +.0026
85F => +.0033
A hydrometer is a useful tool in the hands of an experienced brewer who knows what he wants to measure. Various books or recipes may give Original and/or Final Gravities (OG and FG) of a beer to assist the brewer in the evaluation of his success. For an average beer yeast, a rule of thumb is that the FG should be about one-fourth of the OG. For example, a common beer OG of 1.040 should finish about 1.010 (or lower). A couple points either way is typical scatter.
It needs to be emphasized that the stated FG of a recipe is not the goal. The goal is to make a good tasting beer. The hydrometer should be regarded as only one tool available to the brewer as a means to gauge the fermentation progress. The brewer should only be concerned about a high hydrometer reading when primary fermentation has apparently ended and the reading is about one half of the OG, instead of the nominal one-fourth. Incidentally, if this situation occurs, two remedies are possible. The first is to agitate or swirl the fermenter to rouse the yeastbed from the bottom. The fermenter should remain closed with no aeration. The goal is to re-suspend the yeast so they can get back to work. The alternative is to pitch some fresh yeast.
Hydrometers are necessary when making beer from scratch (all-grain brewing) or when designing recipes. But the first-time brewer using known quantities of extracts simply does not need one.

PRIMING AND BOTTLING:
This ale beer will be ready to bottle in two weeks when primary fermentation has completely stopped. There should be few, if any, bubbles in the airlock. The flavor won’t improve by bottling any earlier. Some books recommend bottling after the bubbling stops or in about 1 week. It is not uncommon for fermentation to stop after 3-4 days and begin again a few days later. If the beer is bottled too soon, the beer will be over-carbonated and the pressure may exceed the bottle strength. Exploding bottles are a disaster.
After the bottles have been cleaned with a brush, rinse them with sanitization solution to sanitize and allow to drain upside down in the six-pack holders or on a rack. Do not rinse out with tap water unless it has been boiled. (Rinsing should not be necessary.) Also sanitize priming container, siphon unit, stirring spoon and bottle caps. But do not heat the bottle caps, as this may ruin the gaskets or tarnish them.
Boil 3/4 cup of corn sugar or 1 and 1/4 cup Dry Malt Extract in some water and let it cool. Here are two methods of Priming:
1. Pour the corn sugar mixture into the sanitized Bottling Bucket. Using your sanitized siphon unit, transfer the beer into the sanitized bottling bucket. Place the outlet beneath the surface of the priming solution. Do not allow the beer to splash as you don’t want to add oxygen to your beer at this point. Keep the intake end of the racking tube an inch off the bottom of the fermenter to leave the yeast and sediment behind. See Note on Siphoning.
2. Opening the fermenter, gently pour the priming solution into the beer. Stir the beer gently with the sanitized paddle, trying to mix it in evenly while being careful not to stir up the sediment. Wait a half hour for the sediment to settle back down and to allow more diffusion of the priming solution to take place. Then siphon to your bottles.
Note on Siphoning: Do not suck on the hose to start the siphon. This will contaminate the hose with Lacto Bacillus bacteria from your mouth. Fill the hose with sanitizing solution prior to putting it into the beer. Keep the end pinched or otherwise closed to prevent the solution from draining out. Place the outlet into another container and release the flow; the draining solution will start the siphon. Once the siphon is started, transfer it to wherever.
Some books recommend 1 tsp. sugar per bottle for priming. This is not recommended because it is time consuming and not precise. Bottles may carbonate unevenly and explode.
BOTTLING:
Place the fill tube of the siphon unit or bottling bucket at the bottom of the bottle. Fill slowly at first to prevent gurgling and keep the fill tube below the waterline to prevent aeration. Fill to about 3/4 inch from the top of the bottles. Place a sanitized cap on the bottle and cap. Inspect every bottle to make sure the cap is secure. Age the capped bottles at room temperature for two weeks, out of direct sunlight. Aging up to two months will improve the flavor considerably, but one week will do the job of carbonation for the impatient.
It is not necessary to store the beer cool, room temperature is fine. It will keep for several months. When cooled prior to serving, some batches will exhibit chill haze. It is caused by proteins left over from the initial cold break. It is nothing to worry about.

REQUIRED EQUIPMENT:

Airlock
: Several styles are available. Fill to the water line with boiled water and cap it (if it has one).
Boiling Pot:
 aka (KETTLE) Must be able to comfortably hold a minimum of 3 gallons; bigger is better. Use only Stainless Steel, Ceramic- coated Steel, or Aluminum. Plain steel will give off-flavors.
Bottles
 Two cases of recappable 12 oz bottles. Use Corona or heavier glass import bottles. Twist-offs do not work well. Used champagne bottles are ideal if you can find them.
Bottle Capper 
Either Hand Capper or Bench Capper. Bench Cappers are more versatile and are needed for the champagne bottles, but are more expensive.
Bottle Caps 
Either standard or oxygen absorbing are available.
Bottle Filler 
Rigid plastic (or metal) tube with spring loaded valve at the tip for filling bottles.
Bottle Brush 
Necessary for first, hard-core cleaning of used beer bottles.
Fermenter(s)
 The 6 gallon food-grade plastic pail is recommended for beginners. These are very easy to work with. Glass carboys are also available, in 5, 6, and 7.5 gallon sizes.
Racking Cane
 Rigid plastic tube with sediment stand-off.
Siphon/Hose
 Available in several configurations, consisting of clear plastic tubing with optional Racking Cane and Bottle Filler.
Stirring Paddle 
Food grade plastic paddle (spoon) for stirring the wort during boiling.
Thermometer
 Obtain a thermometer that can be safely immersed in the wort and has a range of at least 40F to 150F. The floating dairy thermometers are great.
***Optional but Highly Recommended
Bottling Bucket
 A 6 gallon food-grade plastic pail with attached spigot and fill-tube. The finished beer is racked into this for priming prior to bottling. Racking into the bottling bucket allows clearer beer with less sediment in the bottle. The spigot set-up is used instead of the Bottle Filler above, allowing greater control of the fill level and no hassles with a siphon during bottling.

RECOMMENDED READING:
Periodicals:
Zymurgy
 The magazine for the Homebrewer. They also publish Special Issues which provide in-depth information on various subjects, including Hops, Malts, Styles, Equipment, etc.
Brewing Techniques
 A magazine for more advanced home and microbrewing. It explores the science of Brewing.
The HomeBrew Digest
 The computer zine available online by sending the word SUBSCRIBE to homebrew-request@hpfcmi.fc.hp.com It is worth its weight in platinum.

Homebrew FAQ
 FTP from ftp.stanford.edu
Yeast FAQ
 FTP from ftp.stanford.edu
Hops FAQ 
FTP from ftp.stanford.edu
Books:
The Complete Handbook of Homebrewing by Dave Miller
A great book for all the basics, highly recommended for beginning and intermediate brewers.
Brewing the Worlds Great Beers, Dave Miller
Another good book which explores the basics of beer making in a simpler approach than his Handbook.
Brewing Lager Beer by Greg Noonan
 A more technical book for the Lager brewer who wants to know Why. He covers the lager brewing processes in-depth.
The New Complete Joy of Homebrewing by Charlie Papazian
 Not as recommended for beginning brewers because it contains some poor practices (like pouring Hot wort into cold water). Good info in the later pages, though applicable to more experienced brewers who know what to look for.
Principles of Brewing Science by George Fix 
Explains the fundamentals of biochemistry involved in Fermentation. A great book to really understand the brewing process.
Essentials of Beer Style by Fred Eckhardt
A good book for targeting beer styles, provides information that can be used for formulating your own recipes for commercial beers.
The Pocket Guide to Beer by Micheal Jackson
The most complete book of all the worlds beers and styles. The beers of each country/brewery are rated to a 4 star system. A must for beer connoisseurs.
Using Hops by Mark Garetz
A good reference book for the different Hop varieties and their usages. Provides a more complete discussion of Hop Utilization and Bittering than can be found in other current publication.

WATER:
The water is very important to the resulting beer. After all, beer is mostly water. If your tap water tastes good at room temperature, it should make good beer. It will just need to be boiled for a few minutes to remove the chlorine and kill any bacteria. If the water has a metallic taste, boil and let it cool before using to let the excess minerals settle out, and pour it off to another vessel. Do not use water from a salt based water softener. A good bet for your first batch of beer is the bottled water sold in most supermarkets as Drinking Water. Use the 2.5 gallon containers. Use one container for boiling the extract and set the other aside for addition to the fermenter later.
HOPS:
This is another involved subject. There are many varieties of Hops, but they are divided into two main categories: Bittering and Aroma. Bittering Hops are high in Alpha Acids (the main bittering agent), typically around 10 percent. Aroma Hops are lower, around 5 percent. Several Hop varieties are in between and are used for both purposes. Bittering Hops are added at the start of the boil and usually boiled for an hour. Aroma Hops are added towards the end of the boil and are typically boiled for 15 minutes or less (Finishing). Hops can also be added to the fermenter for increased hop aroma in the final beer, called Dry Hopping, but this is best done during Secondary Fermentation. A mesh bag, called a Hop Bag, may be used to help retain the hops and make removal of the Hops easier prior to fermentation. Straining or removal of the Hops before fermentation is largely a matter of personal preference.
Published beer recipes often include a Hops schedule, with amounts and boil times specified. Other recipes specify the Hops in terms of AAUs and IBUs. AAUs are a convenient unit for specifying Hops when discussing Hop additions because it allows for variation in the Alpha Acid percentages between Hop varieties. For example, if 7 AAUs are recommended for the Boil (60 minutes) and 4 AAUs for Finishing (15 minutes). This is assuming the use of Unhopped malt extract; if using Hopped, then only add the 4 AAUs for finishing. These amounts correspond to 22 IBUs for the boil, and 1.25 IBU for the finish. IBUs allow for variation in brewing practices between brewers, yet provide for nearly identical final Hop bitterness levels in the beer.

THE WORT AND OXYGEN:

The use of oxygen in brewing is a double-edged sword. The yeast need oxygen to grow and multiply enough to provide a good fermentation. When the yeast has first been pitched, whether to the starter or the beer, it first seeks to reproduce. The yeast makes use of the dissolved oxygen in the wort for this. Boiling the wort drives out the dissolved oxygen, which is why aeration of some sort is needed prior to fermentation. The yeast first use up all of the oxygen in the wort for reproduction, then get down to the business of turning sugar into alcohol and CO2 as well as processing the other flavor compounds.
On the other hand, if oxygen is introduced while the wort is still hot, the oxygen will oxidize the wort and the yeast cannot utilize it. This will later cause oxidation of the beer which gives a wet cardboard taste. The key is temperature. The generally accepted temperature cutoff for preventing hot wort oxidation is 80F. In addition, if oxygen is introduced after the fermentation has started, it will not be utilized by the yeast and will later cause the wet cardboard or sherry-like flavors.
This is why it is important to cool the wort rapidly to below 80F, to prevent oxidation, and then aerate it by shaking or whatever to provide the dissolved oxygen that the yeast need. Cooling rapidly between 90 and 130F is important because this region is ideal for bacterial growth to establish itself in the wort.
Most homebrewers use cold water baths around the pot or copper tubing Wort Chillers to accomplish this cooling in about 20 minutes or less. A rapid chill also causes the Cold Break material to settle out, which decreases the amount of protein Chill Haze in the finished beer.
Aeration of the wort can be accomplished several ways: shaking the container, pouring the wort into the fermenter so it splashes, or even hooking up an airstone to an aquarium air pump and letting that bubble for an hour. For the latter method, (which is popular) everything must be sanitized! Otherwise, Infection City. These instructions recommend shaking the starter and pouring/shaking the wort. More on this later.
Sanitization So far, sanitization of ingredients and equipment has been discussed but not much has been said about how to do this. The definition and objective of sanitization is to reduce bacteria and contaminants to insignificant or manageable levels. Sterilization is not really possible. The Starter solution, Wort and Priming solutions will all be boiled, so those are not a problem (usually).
One note – Do Not Boil the Yeast! You need them to be alive.
We recommend using a no-rinse sanitizer such as Star-San, One Step, Iodiphor, or something similar. Mix the sanitizer according to the manufacturer’s directions and apply to all equipment that will come in contact with your wort after the boil, and drain as much of the sanitizer solution from the equipment as possible. No rinsing required! Some sanitizers require letting the solution dry before using the equipment, but some can be used wet. Refer to the manufacturers instructions for contact times and drying requirements. One very useful tool for small parts to be sanitized is a spray bottle; you can purchase a spray bottle from your local garden shop or dollar store. Fill the spray bottle with freshly made sanitizing solution and you can spray down equipment as needed during your brew day. Most no-rinse sanitizers require only a few minutes of contact time, which can speed up your brew day!
Clean all equipment as soon as possible. This means rinsing out the fermenter, tubing, etc. as soon as they are used. It is very easy to get distracted and come back to find the syrup or yeast has dried hard as a rock and the equipment is stained. Keep a large container with a solution of P.B.W. or another food grade cleaner handy and just toss things in, clean later.
Rinsing bottles after each use eliminates the need to scrub bottles. If your bottles are dirty, moldy or whatever, soaking and washing in a mild solution of chlorine bleach water for a day or two will soften most residue. Brushing with a bottle brush is a necessity to remove stuck residue. Dish washers are great for cleaning the outside of bottles and heat sterilizing, but will not clean the inside where the beer is going to go; that must be done beforehand. P.B.W. also works very well but must be rinsed carefully. Do not wash with soap. This leaves a residue which you will be able to taste. Never use any scented cleaning agents, these odors can be absorbed into the plastic buckets and manifest in the beer. Fresh-Lemon Scented Pinesol Beer is not very good. Also, dishwasher Rinse Agents will destroy the Head retention on your glassware. If you pour a beer with carbonation and no head, this is a common cause.

YEAST:
There are several aspects to yeast; it is the other major factor in determining the flavor of the beer. Different yeast strains will produce different beers when pitched to identical worts. Yeast is available both wet and dry, for Ale and Lager, et cetera. For the first-time brewer, a dry Ale yeast is highly recommended. There are several brands available, including Coopers, Edme, Nottingham, and Red Star. All of these listed will produce good results.
Ale yeast are referred to as top-fermenting because much of the fermentation action takes place at the top of the fermenter, while Lager yeasts would seem to prefer the bottom. While many of today’s strains like to confound this generalization, there is one important difference, and that is temperature. Ale yeasts like warmer temperatures, going dormant below 55F (12C), while Lager yeasts will happily work at 40F. Using Lager yeast at Ale temperatures 65-70F (18-20C) produces Steam Beer, or what is now termed California Common Beer. Anchor Steam Beer ™ was the founder of this unique style.
For more information, see the Recommended Reading section.
Yeast Starter
Liquid yeast must be and all yeast should be, pitched to a Starter before pitching to the beer in the fermenter. Using a starter gives yeast a head start and prevents weak fermentations from under-pitching. Dry Yeast should be re-hydrated before pitching. Re-hydrating dry yeast is simple.
1. Put 1 cup of warm (90F, 35C) boiled water into a sterile jar and stir in the yeast. Cover with Saran Wrap and wait 10 minutes.
2. Stir in one teaspoon of sugar.
3. Cover and place in a warm area out of direct sunlight.
4. After 30 minutes or so, the yeast should be actively churning and foaming. This is now ready to pitch.

Liquid yeast is regarded as superior to Dry yeast because of the refinement of yeast strains present and little risk of bacterial contamination during manufacture. Liquid yeast allows for greater tailoring of the beer to a particular style. However, the amount of yeast in a liquid packet is much less than the amount in the dry. For best results, it needs a starter. The packet must be squeezed and warmed to 80F at least two days before brewing. One day before, it should be pitched to a wort starter made from 1/4 cup of DME and a pint of water that has been boiled and cooled to 75F (25C). Adding a quarter teaspoon of yeast nutrient is also advisable. Let this sit in the same warm place until brewing time the next day. Some foaming or an increase in the white yeast layer on the bottom should be evident. The Starter process may be repeated to provide even more yeast to the wort to insure a strong fermentation.

TROUBLESHOOTING:

 

Problem
Causes
Fermentation does not start

Inadequate amount of yeast pitched

Wort too hot (yeast stunned/killed)

Wort too cold (yeast dormant)

Fermentation fine, but bucket not sealed (so
you can’t see bubbles in airlock)

Fermentation already complete (look for ring
of “crud” around inside of fermenter)
Stuck fermentation

Not enough yeast pitched

Inadequate aeration

Wort temperature too low

Yeast strain flocculated early (rousing yeast
may help)

Fermentation is finished, not stuck (take
specific gravity to check)
A puckering, tea-like quality; sometimes confused with
bitterness (astringency)

X: steeped grains in too much water (over 3
quarts water per pound of grain)

X: steeping water too hot (over 170 °F)

AG: excessive volume of sparge water
(collected wort less than SG 1.008 or above a pH of 5.8)

AG: excessively hot sparge water (over 170 °F)
Sour or tart beer

Contamination

Tart ingredients (like raspberries or
cranberries)

AG: mash sat overnight and temperature dropped
to 120 °F (or below)
A buttery or butterscotch-like flavor or aroma (diacetyl)

Yeast did not absorb diacetyl (a diacetyl rest
is required for some lager yeast strains)

Contamination

Racked beer too early

Yeast strain
Overly fruity aromas, especially banana (estery)

High fermentation temperatures

Inadequate pitching rate

Yeast strain (some British and Belgian ale
strains are supposed to be very fruity)
Chloraseptic-like or Band-aid-like aroma or flavor
(phenolic)

Contamination
Vinegar flavor or aroma (acetic)

Contamination, especially in conjunction with
exposure to oxygen
Wort darker than expected

X: concentrated wort boil

X: scorching of malt extract (stir in
thoroughly)
Stuck mash

Running off wort too quickly

Grains crushed too finely

High percentage of wheat or rye
Low extract efficiency

Crush too coarse

Collecting wort too fast

Collecting too little volume of wort per unit
of grain

Poor lauter tun design

Water chemistry not conducive to good mash
(check calcium levels first)

pH outside of 5.2-5.6 range
Overly high final gravity (FG)

Maybe the beer was supposed to have a high FG

High percentage of specialty malt in recipe

Yeast strain

Any of causes listed under “stuck
fermentation” (above)
Chill haze

Use Irish moss (at rate of 1 tsp. per 5
gallons

Boil too short or not vigorous enough
Poor foam

Glassware dirty

Weak fermentation

Too little protein in wort (esp. when high
amounts of adjunct are used)

AG: overly-long rest at 122-131 °F
Mold on surface of beer

It may be yeast, not mold (different yeast
strains behave differently)

Wort is exposed to oxygen, which encourages
surface growths
Bottle-conditioned beer is flat

Move bottles to warmer location for
conditioning

Give beer more time to condition

Beer and priming sugar not adequately mixed in
bottling bucket

You forgot the priming sugar

Not enough yeast left in beer to bottle
condition (rarely happens)
Bottle-conditioned beer is overcarbonated

Contamination

Beer and priming sugar not adequately mixed in
bottling bucket

Too much priming sugar
Beer’s original gravity (OG) too low

X: wort and topping up water not mixed
thoroughly

AG: poor extract efficiency (see above)
Cheesy aroma or flavor

Hops are old and stale
Corn-like aroma or flavor (DMS)

Wort cooled too slowly when certain very pale
malts used

contamination
Solvent-like or nail- polish aromas (higher alcohols,
fusel oils)

Fermentation temperature too high

Inadequate aeration

High original gravity
Skunk-like aroma

Beer exposed to light (especially due to
bottling in clear or green bottles)
Wet cardboard aromas and flavors (oxidation)

Beer exposed to oxygen during late
fermentation or conditioning
Sherry-like aromas or flavor (oxidation)

Beer exposed to oxygen during late
fermentation or conditioning

Long aging of high-alcohol beers (appropriate
in some cases)
Excessive sediment in bottle conditioned beer

Some sediment is always present

Let beer fall clear before bottling
Water, wort or beer on floor

Be sure all valves are closed before
transferring liquid to a vessel
Beer on ceiling

Fermentation lock clogged (use blow-off tube
next time)

Bitterness

Excess bitterness in your beer is usually perceived on the back of the tongue, and often manifests itself as a bitter aftertaste.  If bitterness is too low the beer often will have a very malty, sweet or grainy profile.  Some beers such as IPAs require high bitterness, while others such as Scotch and many German ales require a malty profile.

Excess bitterness is created by overuse of boiling/bitterness hops, long boil times, the use of black or roasted malts, and the use of alkaline water or water with excess sulfates.  Conversely low bitterness can result from a low bitterness to gravity ratio, too little hops, malty grains such as Vienna and Munich malts, short boil time or high fermentation temperatures.  Filtration can also reduce the bitterness of your beer in many cases.

Body

Body is often referred to as mouth-feel or the thickness of the beer.  Full bodied beers have a well rounded thick feel to them while light bodied beers have a thin profile.

I recently wrote a complete article on how to enhance the body of your beer. Some techniques include adding caramel, crystal or carafoam malts, lactose, malto-dextrin, adding more malt overall, adding wheat, increasing the mash temperature of your beer and fermenting at a lower temperature.   Conversely thin beers can be created by reducing additives, adding rice or sugar, decreasing mash temperature and fermenting at higher temperatures.

Diaceytl Flavors

Diaceytl  flavor comes through as a buttery or butterscotch flavor.  It is most often caused by incomplete fermentation.  Potential causes include an old or undersized yeast starter, lack of oxygen in the wort before fermentation, lack of yeast nutrients, bacterial contamination or use of excessive adjuncts such as corn or rice that lack proper nutrients.  Finally, if you prematurely halt fermentation by suddenly raising or lowering temperature, adding finings too soon or choosing a yeast with very high flocculation you can get a distinct butterscotch flavor in your beer.

You can counteract diceytl by starting with an appropriately sized yeast starter, making sure your wort is properly oxygenated before fermentation, avoiding contamination and making sure a majority of your grain bill contains fresh barley malt.  Barley malt naturally has the nutrients needed for proper yeast growth.

Alcoholic Profile

The alcoholic profile of a beer is most often perceived as a warm sensation in the mouth and throat.  Different styles obviously require different alcohol profiles as indicated by the starting and ending gravities in the BJCP Style Guide. Ideally a beer should have a balanced profile that compliments the overall flavor.

Fusel alcohols leave a solvent like flavor in the beer and are most often produced by fermentation at excessively high temperatures.  Fermenting in the recommended range for your yeast can mitigate any solvent-like fusel flavors.

Overall alcohol balance can be controlled by adjusting your original gravity to match the style of beer as well as taking proper care in fermentation to make sure the wort is properly aerated, pitched and kept within the recommended temperature range during fermentation.  If there is a significant mismatch between the alcohol content and body of the beer, you can also look at adjusting the body of the beer (described above) to better balance your recipe.

Astringency

An astringent flavor comes across as grainy or a raw husky flavor.  In some cases it may be dry or similar to the flavor of grape skins.

Astringency is most often caused by oversparging your grains or boiling your grains.  It can also be caused by sparging with excessively hot water (over 175F), excess trub in the wort, and overmilling of your grains.  You can minimize astringency by proper milling, sparging and a good rolling boil when brewing your beer.

Phenolic Flavors

Phenolic flavors are perceived as a medicinal or band-aid like flavor that can be quite harsh.  It also sometimes is perceived as plastic, smokey or clovelike.  Strong phenolic flavors can make the beer harsh or even undrinkable in some cases.

Phenolic flavors, like astringency, can be caused by oversparging or boiling your grains.  In addition the use of chlorinated tap water or presence of bacterial contamination can also cause phenolic flavors.  Excessive use of wheat malts or roasted barley malts can also lead to clovelike flavors.  Check your equipment and bottle caps for leaks and potential contamination, carefully control your sparging process and use an alternate water source if needed to mitigate phenolics.

Dimethyl Sulfide (DMS)

DMS flavors and aromas come across as cabbage, rotten eggs or a sweet cornlike aroma.  Excess DMS can spoil your beer.

DMS has many potential causes.  These include high moisture malt (especially 6 row), bacterial contamination, oversparging at low temperature (below 160F), and underpitching your yeast.  Covering your pot during the boil can also create DMS.  Storing malt in a cool dry place, care when sparging and boiling, and a proper yeast starter can help to mitigate the ill effects of DMS.

Sour/Acidic Flavors

Sour and acidic flavors may be perceived as a bitter, cider-like, lemon-juice or sour candy flavors usually at the side of the tongue.

One primary cause of sourness is contamination due to inattention to proper sanitation.  The use of excessive sugar, particularly refined sugars used by many beginners can also introduce a sour cider-like flavor.  Other causes include the addition of excessive ascorbic acid, introduction of bacteria or contamination, excessively high fermentation temperatures and storage of the beer at very warm temperatures.

Beer Color Laboratories
There is a lot more to the Color of Beer than you Think!
Welcome to a Website Dedicated to “Beer Color”

This website will always be a work in progress!

MALT DESCRIPTIONS

Briess – Crisp – De Wolf-Cosyns – Durst Malts  – Great Western –  Muntons  –  Weyermann
Cargill – Pauls – Meussdoerffer – Dingdemans

Briess Malting Company

For more than 130 years brewers have relied upon Briess malts for superior brewhouse performance and consistent brews, batch after batch. Today, the Briess tradition continues as we carefully craft more than 50 varieties of base and specialty malts (more than any malting company in the world) as well as our own pure malt extracts, syrups, brewers flakes, filtering aids and natural malt colors. Briess operates the most unique and specialized malting operation in North America. Customized drying equipment at multiple locations enables the production of a spectrum of specialty malts that range from light-colored, high temperature kilned base malts, to the darkest malt that can be produced–black malt. Briess malts are rich and flavorful, and shipped fresh from America’s Heartland. The Briess tradition dates back to 1876, when the Briess family of grain traders in Moravia, Czechoslovakia, diversified into the manufacture of quality malts and malt extracts. This family-owned enterprise soon became well-known within the brewing industries of Europe and the Americas. In the 1930s, Eric Briess  (third generation) extended operations to a new malting facility in the American Midwest. In the 1970s, Briess renewed and intensified research into the development of new uses for malt, leading to the creation of new malt types and brewing grains that have improved the spectrum of ingredients available to creative brewers.

Malts

Black malt: Fully modified six-row Robust barley. Lends wort a deep red hue when used at 5% of the grist or more. Suitable for all styles; can be especially useful as a color enhancer for low-alcohol, non-alcohol, and light beers. Odor of mash: aromatic. Rate of filtration: normal

Caramel: Fully modified six-row organic Robust barley; the organic counterpart to Briess’s caramel malt. This product adds a deep golden to red hue to Pilsner, amber, Vienna, red Märzen, and Bock styles and a medium to strong caramel sweetness that may deepen into a slightly burnt sugar flavor. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Carapils®: Fully modified six-row organic Robust barley. Used to improve foam, increase shelf life, and create mouthfeel without adding color or flavor. Intended for low-alcohol, light, full-bodied beers. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Chocolate: Fully modified six-row organic Robust barley. Lends a dark color and rich dark chocolate flavor to dark beers, porters, and stouts. Odor of mash: aromatic. Rate of filtration: normal

Munich 10 °L: Fully modified six-row organic Robust barley; the organic counterpart to Briess ‘s Munich 10 °L. This product increases malty notes to balance the sensation of malt and hop flavors in dark beers such as Bocks, porters, Märzens, and Oktoberfests. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Six-row brewers malt: Fully modified six-row organic Robust barley; the organic counterpart to Briess ‘s six-row malt. Suitable as a base malt for any beer style, this malt has high enzyme activity sufficient to support a high percentage of specialty malts. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Two-row brewers malt: Fully modified two-row organic Harrington barley; the organic counterpart to Briess ‘s two-row malt. Use as a base malt to provide enyzmes for conversion. Suitable for all beer styles. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Caramel 10 °L (six-row): Fully modified six-row Robust barley. Lends wort a golden color and a slight caramel sweetness. Suitable for all beer styles. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal

Caramel 20 °L (six-row): Fully modified six-row Robust barley. Lends a golden color and a slight caramel sweetness to all beer styles. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Caramel 40 °L (six-row): Fully modified six-row Robust barley. Adds a deep golden color and medium caramel sweetness to Pilsener, amber, and Vienna beers. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Caramel 40 °L, 60 °L, and 80 °L (two-row): Fully modified two-row Harrington barley. These three malts contribute varying degrees of deep golden color and medium caramel sweetness to Pilsener, amber, and Vienna beers. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Caramel 60 °L, 80 °L, 90 °L, and 120 °L (six-row): Fully modified six-row Robust barley. Caramels in these color ranges impart a red hue and a flavor that varies from that of a strong caramel to a slightly burnt sugar. Best suited to amber, Pilsener, red ale, Märzen, and Bock styles. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Carapils®: Fully modified six-row Robust barley. Used to improve foam, increase shelf life, and create mouthfeel in low-alcohol, light, and full bodied beers without adding color or flavor. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Chocolate malt, two-row and six-row: Fully modified two-row Harrington or six-row Robust barley. Lends a dark color and a rich dark chocolate flavor to porters, stouts, and other dark beers. Odor of mash: aromatic. Rate of filtration: normal.

Munich 10 °L and 20 °L: Fully modified six-row Robust barley. These products are used to increase malt flavor in relation to hoppiness in dark beers, particularly Bock, porter, Märzen, and Oktoberfest beers. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Pale ale malt: Fully modified two-row Harrington barley. Can be used as a base malt or in combination with two- row brewers malt for a rich malty flavor and increased color.Intended for English-style ales, particularly IPA, ESB, and bitters. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal

Roasted barley: An unmalted, roasted six-row Robust barley. Lends a dark color and coffee flavor to porters and stouts. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Rye malt: Fully modified malt made of rye grown in the Midwestern region of the United States. Lends a typical rye spiciness to Roggen and other rye beers. Will slow lautering. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Special roast: Fully modified six-row Robust barley. Imparts a deep orange color and a roast biscuit flavor to dark and brown ales. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Two-row and six-row brewers malts: Fully modified two-row Harrington/six-row Robust barley. Useful as base malts for any beer style; these malts have high enzyme activity sufficient to support a high percentage of specialty malts. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal

Victory: Fully modified six-row Robust barley. Used to add orange hues and a toasted nut flavor to IPAs, ambers, and nut brown ales. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Vienna: Fully modified six-row Robust barley. Similar characteristics to pale ale malt, but made with six-row barley. Intended for German Pilsener, Märzen, and Kölsch styles. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Wheat malt: Fully modified wheat grown in the Midwestern region of the United States. Provides the flavor and mouthfeel characteristic of Weizen, Weiss, and other wheat beers and improves foam in all beer styles. May slow lautering. Odor of mash: aromatic. Clarity of mash: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Adjuncts

Briess  adjuncts can be added directly to the mash without altering brewhouse procedures.

Pregelatinized brewers flaked barley: Adds a dryness to all beer styles, particularly stouts and porters.

Pregelatinized brewers flaked corn: Use to lighten the body of any finished beer, particularly American lagers.

Pregelatinized brewers flaked oats: Use to add typical oat flavor to the wort to create oatmeal stouts. Requires the use of additional water in the mash.

Pregelatinized brewers flaked rice: Use to lighten body and to add crispness to any beer, particularly American lagers.

Pregelatinized brewers flaked rye: Adds typical rye spiciness to Roggen and other rye beers.

Pregelatinized brewers flaked wheat: Provides typical wheat characteristics, such as increased foam and head retention. Intended for wheat beers such as Weizen, Wit, Belgian white, and Weiss.

Torrified brewers barley: No need to mill. Adds a dryness to all beer styles, particularly stouts and porters.

Torrified brewers rye: No need to mill. Adds typical rye spiciness to Roggen and other rye beers.

Torrified brewers wheat: No need to mill. Provides typical wheat characteristics, such as increased foam and head retention. Intended for wheat beers such as Weizen, Wit, Belgian white, and Weiss.

Cargill Malt Specialty Products Group

Steeped in the tradition of the past, with an eye on the future, Quality, Service and Selection are the hallmarks of the newly formed Cargill Malt – Specialty Products Group. As the Specialty arm of Cargill Malt, we are dedicated to supplying breweries of all sizes with the finest quality pale and specialty malts, superior customer service, and a selection second to no other malt manufacturer. With access to Cargill’s world-wide malt network, including malting facilities in the rich North American barley growing regions of North Dakota and the prairies of Saskatchewan, Canada, we are able to consistently deliver quality malt to better meet your brewing needs. Through our strategically located distribution centers, we are ready to deliver superior customer service at a location that is convenient to you Using the finest malting barley, our two-row caramel malts provide intense color and caramel sweetness with lower astringency than traditional crystal malts produced in a roaster.

Cargill Special Pale (3° – 4° L)
This moderately kilned two-row malt will lend a forward malt flavor and aroma as well as an amber-red color. An excellent base malt for ales and amber lagers

Cargill Red Wheat (2.6° – 3.2° L)
Made from Hard Red Spring Wheat grown in the Midwest, Cargill Red Wheat is best used when brewing white or traditional weizen beers.

Cargill White Wheat (2.6° – 3.2° L)
Produced from the finest American Soft White Winter Wheat, Cargill White Wheat may be used in amounts up to 60% in creating many styles of wheat beer and in smaller amounts (5 -10%) to aid in head retention.

Schreier Two-Row Pale (1.5° – 2.5° L)
This malt is well modified, clean tasting, and moderate in total protein. An excellent base malt for all beer styles.

Schreier Six-Row Pale (1.5° – 2.1° L)
The preferred base malt for adjunct-based American lager and wheat beers.

Cargill Two-Row Pale (1.5° – 2.5° L)
This malt is well modified, clean tasting, and moderate in total protein. It will provide you consistent brewhouse performance for all beer styles.

Cargill IdaPils™ (1.4° – 1.7° L)
Our signature product, Cargill IdaPils™ is malted from the finest Idaho Harrington, contract grown on irrigated farms for a consistently low total protein and high extract malt. This is an excellent choice for use in light lagers and Pilsner type beers.

Cargill Euro Pils (1.5° – 2.0° L)
Fashioned after the great Pilsner malts of Europe, Cargill Euro Pils is malted in our Canadian malting facility using the finest Canadian two-row barley. This malt exhibits the distinct “grassiness” often associated with European Pilsner malts.

Cargill Unmalted Wheat
A hard red wheat best used in Belgian ales and White beer.

Cargill German Pils
Produced in our Salzgitter, Germany malthouse, the barley variety Barke was selected for its exceptional malting and brewing performance.

Cargill Munich (8° – 11° L)
A fully modified two-row color malt, Cargill Munich will enhance beer body, color, and aroma of dark beers such as Bock and Oktoberfest.

Cargill Six-Row Caramel Malts
Using the finest six-row barley available, all of our six-row caramel malts are made in our circular kiln in Sheboygan, WI, one batch at a time. These malts are an excellent addition to any beer requiring additional color and caramel malt sweetness. Our higher color caramel malts provide intense red hues with lower astringency than traditional crystal malts produced in a roaster.

Cargill Two-Row Caramel Malts

Cargill Two-Row Caramel 60 (55° – 65° L)

Cargill Caramel 10 (8° – 15° L)
Cargill Caramel 20 (15° – 25° L)
Cargill Caramel 30 (25° – 35° L)
Cargill Caramel 40 (35° – 45° L)
Cargill Caramel 60 (55° – 65° L)
Cargill Caramel 80 (70° – 85° L)

Crisp Maltings

The Crisp family has been in the malting business since 1804 and is presently the largest family-owned malting company in the UK. As a recipient of the Queen’s Award for Export Achievement, Crisp has proved itself as a global enterprise capable of extending its reputation for quality, service, and value worldwide. Crisp’s malting plants are based in the main barley growing areas of England, with an additional plant located at the end of the Spay valley, home to most of the Scottish distilleries. Grains are germinated slowly in the time-honored fashion, providing even, well-modified malts. Kilning is also a timely process, performed with skills passed on from generation to generation. Water is supplied to most sites from private bore holes or nearby wells to guarantee a clean, fresh supply. Crisp stores most of its own barley, which the company categorizes by barley variety and protein quantity to ensure brewers a consistent product each year.  Crisp malts are available from coast to coast in the United States. The two main distributors are Brewers Wholesale Supply and L.D. Carlson.  Crisp Maltings produces malts from Maris Otter and other British two-row spring varieties. Grain is treated to a combination of germination and modification techniques (traditional floor malting, Saladin germination boxes, vats, and drums) at Crisp’s processing facility in Great Ryburgh, Norfolk, England. The resulting products can be used for a variety of beer styles.

Malts

English pale ale malt: Produced using traditional floor malting with a slow germination to allow full, even modification, this pale malt is superb for Irish, Welsh, and English beer styles. It lends itself to wonderful brewery extracts and a full malty body. Mash odor: aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Finest Pilsner lager malt: This malt is lighter in color than the pale ale malts and slightly higher in nitrogen content, making it perfect for any European Pilsener, lager, or light beer. It is a good extract for brewers desiring a clean malt flavor free of the earthy tannin notes sometimes exhibited by lesser malts when used in more modern breweries. Many European breweries use this malt, including some that adhere to the German purity law. 100% homogeneity.

Low-colour wheat malt: This malt provides a good extract with a fresh wheat flavor and a light color. It is germinated to help reduce the possibility of slow run-offs or sticky mashes. Good for any wheat beer.

Maris Otter: This pale ale malt is derived from barley grown under exclusive contract by British farmers. Maris Otter is typically more expensive than normal pale ale malt because of its low yield; however, it is a key player in the Crisp malt line-up and has been used for many years by British brewers such as Marstons

Colored Malts

Crisp’s colored malts are slow-kilned to bring out distinctive malt flavors free of overpowering burnt notes. The process results in products that are generally darker than others of its kind. Perfect for fuller flavor beers such as those produced in Britain, Scotland, and Germany.

Black malt: Fully modified. Floor, drum, saladin, and vat techniques.

Chocolate malt: A combination of fully modified UK grain derivatives.

Crystal malt: Fully modified. Floor, drum, Saladin, and vat techniques.

Adjuncts

Crisp Maltings also offers flaked oats, flaked rye, and torrified wheat.

De Wolf-Cosyns Maltings

The Belgian company of De Wolf-Cosyns Maltings has acquired a solid reputation in specialty kilned and roasted malts. The company has malthouses in the cities of Leuven and Aalst, Belgium, placing them conveniently close to a transportation network comprising river, railway, and roadway and linking De Wolf- Cosyns to a grain-growing region renowned for the quality of its brewing barley. The malthouses’ proximity to the growing regions assures the company of an optimum selection of the cream of Belgium’s barley crop. The Leuven and Aalst plants combine the technology of mechanized floor maltings, Saladin boxes, and two high-capacity roasting drums to produce a total of 150,000 metric tonnes (168,000 U.S. tons) of malt annually. De Wolf-Cosyns’ product line comprises more than a dozen two-row whole kernel, pale, and specialty malts. All malts are derived from Prisma and Alexis spring and winter barley (or wheat, where applicable) grown in the grain regions surrounding Belgium.

Malts

Aromatic malt: A Munich malt. This product will impart a distinct, almost exaggerated malt aroma and flavor to dark lagers, amber lagers, and German Bocks, even at a rate as low as 10%. Very well modified. Odor of mash: very aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Biscuit malt: A lightly roasted malt with the flavor and aroma of Saltine crackers. Designed to improve bread and biscuits; also used to improve the toasted flavor and aroma characteristics of ales and lagers. Made from a well- modified kilned malt that is drum roasted. Odor of mash: crackers. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Black malt: A well-modified kilned malt that is drum roasted to impart a burnt, pronounced flavor. It is used primarily as a coloring malt for several dark-styled beers. Odor of mash: burnt coffee. Degree of clarity: dark. Rate of filtration: slow.

Caramel

Caramel malt: This pale, dextrin-style malt is loaded with unfermentable sugars to add body, mouthfeel, and palate fullness to pale beers. Made from green malt and drum roasted for good caramelization. Odor of mash: very aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

CaraMunich(tm): A traditional, caramel-style malt with an assertive, full malty flavor and excellent color. Made from green malt that is drum roasted for a high degree of caramelization. Intended for darker ales and lagers. Odor of mash: aromatic. Degree of clarity: dark. Rate of filtration: normal.

CaraVienne(tm): A pale to medium caramel-style malt with a smooth malty taste well suited to Märzen and Belgian-style ales. Made from green malt that is drum roasted for good caramelization. Odor of mash: very aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Chocolate malt: A traditional chocolate malt suitable for porters, brown ales, and barleywine. Made from well modified kilned malt that is drum roasted. Odor of mash: burnt coffee. Degree of clarity: dark. Rate of filtration: normal.

Munich malt: Traditional light-colored, Munich-style malt suitable for German-style Bocks. Moderate enzyme rate. Very well modified. Odor of mash: aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Pale ale malt: This very well modified malt works best in a step mash. Suitable for all beer styles. Odor of mash: aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: slightly slow.

Pilsen malt: A true European Pils-style malt, very pale. Well modified. Intended for full-flavored lagers, Belgian- style ales, and European-style Pils beers. Odor of mash: aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Roasted barley: An unmalted, smooth, drum-roasted barley intended for stouts and porters. Odor of mash: burnt coffee. Degree of clarity: dark. Rate of filtration: slow.

Special B malt: This caramel malt undergoes a second roasting, resulting in a cross between dark caramel and light-roasted malts, similar to a brown malt. May be substituted for chocolate malt if bitterness is not desired. Intended for Bocks and brown ales. Odor of mash: aromatic. Degree of clarity: dark. Rate of filtration: slow.

Wheat malt: Derived from biscuit-type wheat of the Thesee and Thrimie varieties. Wheat berries are large and well modified. This malt delivers a slight malty flavor suitable for Weizen, Kölsch, and Belgian-style white beers. Odor of mash: bread-like. Degree of clarity: slightly hazy. Rate of filtration: slow.

Dingdemans

The Dingemans family has produced an extensive range of basic ingredients for the demanding Belgian and European brewer since 1875. Today, as our ancestors did in the past, we benefit from Dingemans central geographical position of their malting house in the middle of the best barley-growing region, with France, Holland, England and Germany at their doorstep. In their kiln they make Pilsen, Ale, Munich, Amber and Aroma malt. In their roasting facility they caramelize barley and also roast wheat.

The result is an outstanding line of brewers and specialty malts used not only in Pilsen type beers, but also in Trappist, Abbey and White beers.

Pilsen (1.4° – 1.8° L)
Light in color and low in protein, Dingemans Pilsen is produced from the finest European two-row barley. This malt is well modified and can easily be mashed with a single-temperature infusion.

Pale Ale (2.7° – 3.8° L)
Dingemans Pale Ale malt is fully modified and is easily converted by a single-temperature mash. This is the preferred malt for ales of all types. This malt is interchangeable with British pale ale malt.

Pale Wheat (1.2° – 2.0° L)
Dingemans Pale Wheat may be used in amounts ranging from 30 – 70% of the total grist to create many styles of wheat beer and in smaller amounts to aid in head retention.

Munich (4° – 7° L)
Dingemans Munich malt undergoes higher kilning temperatures than pale malt. The resulting malt will lend a full, malty flavor and aroma, and an orange-amber color. This malt can make up to 100% of the grain bill, but low diastatic power makes this malt unsuitable for use with adjuncts.

Aromatic (Amber 50) (17° – 21° L)
Dingemans Aromatic is a mildly kilned malt that will add a strong malt aroma and deep color when used as a specialty malt. This malt can make up to 100% of the grain bill, but it is fairly low in surplus diastatic enzymes.

Cara 8* (6° – 9° L)
Dingemans Cara 8 is a very light crystal malt made by drying barley malt at low temperatures. The result is a malt that will lend body, smoother mouth-feel, and foam stability. This malt must be mashed with other kilned malts due to the lack of enzymes.

Cara 20* (19° – 27° L) Dingemans Cara 20 is a light crystal malt used by Belgian breweries in producing Abbey or Trappist style ales and is appropriate for any recipe that calls for crystal malt.

Cara 45* (40° – 54° L)
Dingemans Cara 45 is a medium-amber crystal malt that will impart a rich, caramel-sweet aroma and full flavor, as well as intense color.

Special B (140° – 155° L)
The darkest of the Belgian crystal malts, Dingemans Special B will impart a heavy caramel taste and is often credited with the raisin-like flavors of some Belgian Abbey ales. Larger percentages (greater than 5%) will contribute a dark brown-black color and fuller body.

Roasted Wheat (Tarwe Mout Roost 27) (10° – 14° L)
Dingemans Roasted Wheat is a slightly roasted wheat that will lend nutty, bread-like flavors.

Biscuit (Mout Roost 50) (18° – 27° L)
This toasted malt will provide a warm bread or biscuit flavor and aroma and will lend a garnet-brown color. Use 5-15% maximum. No enzymes. Must be mashed with malts having surplus diastatic power.

Chocolate (Mout Roost 900) (300° – 380° L)
Dingemans Chocolate malt is a high-nitrogen malt that is roasted at temperatures up to 450°F and then rapidly cooled when the desired color is achieved. “Chocolate” refers primarily to the malt’s color, not its flavor. This malt will lend various levels of aroma, a deep red color, and a nutty / roasted taste, depending on the amount used.

De-Bittered Black Malt (Mout Roost 1400) (500° – 600° L)
Using an exclusive evaporative process, Dingemans De-Bittered
Black Malt will contribute the same color characteristics as Black malt with a less astringent flavor.

Durst Malts

An authentic German malt producer located in the fatherland of beer, Durst operates its modern technological facility with a family ethos. Durst began as a family-owned country brewery and malthouse 170 years ago. It sold its first malt exports in 1924 and has since expanded into an international supplier producing 140,000 metric tonnes (157,000 U.S. tons) of malt each year.  All of the raw materials used by the three main Durst plants are harvested from Germany’s traditional barley growing regions: Baden-Württemberg, North Bavaria, South Hesse, and the Rhine Valley. The company uses electrophoresis technology and other analytical techniques to monitor the grade of all barley received and to accurately identify barley properties.  All barley supplied to Durst is also cleaned in modern steeping tanks for up to 48 hours in water extracted from Durst’s own well. The latest technology in kilning gently dries the malt in an electronically controlled double-floor model with air reversal and indirect heating. The plants themselves are odor-free and fully automated by internal electricity generators and a private wastewater purification system. Durst maltings were the first in Germany to be ISO-9000 certified.  Distributed in North America exclusively by G.W. Kent, Inc.

Malts

Durst malts are made of German-grown two-row Alexis, Scarlett, Sissy, and Krona barley and Borenos, Atlantis, and Tambor wheat. They are processed using tower malting and Saladin boxes.

Crystal 40, 120, and 200 °EBC : Durst’s crystal or caramel malts are produced through several color stages. The temperature during germination in the last 30 to 36 hours is increased to 122 °F (50 °C) to encourage increased enzymic breakdown and the formation of low molecular weight nitrogen components and sugars. The crystal malt is then saccharified in a roasting drum. Upon removal from the drum, it is rapidly and uniformly cooled. This process contributes substantially to increased palate fullness and malt aroma, thereby producing a fuller flavor and deeper beer color that will improve the taste and appearance of any beer style.

Munich: Very high finishing temperatures are used to produce the characteristic color and flavor of this malt, which is used to underline the typical dark character of strong, dark beers, particularly dark dunkel lagers. Odor of mash: normal. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Pils: A highly modified (80-95%) malt withered during 20 hours at temperatures of 132-140 °F (56-60 °C) and then cured for 31Ž2 to 2 hours at 176-185 °F (80-85 °C). Used to produce premium lagers. Odor of mash: normal. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Vienna: Durst uses a steeping degree of 44-46% to create this Vienna malt, which can be used to adjust the pale malt properties of “golden” beers and to improve palate fullness. A darker color is obtained by modifying the malt and curing it at 194 °F (90 °C). Modification: 80-95%. Odor of mash: normal. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Wheat: Because the company believes that an intensive malting process should be avoided with wheat, it gives preference to wheat varieties that show low protein modification and low viscosity (Borenos, Atlantis, and Tambor). The greatest difference between wheat and barley is that wheat lacks a husk and has a higher protein content..

Great Western Malting Co.

Great Western Malting Company has been producing malt for brewers in the western United States since 1934. The company contributed to the early craft brewing movement by filling cardboard boxes and pick-up truck beds full of malt for fledgling brewers in the early 1980s. The company is currently an independent subsidiary within a group of malting companies that includes Canada Malting Company, Hugh Baird & Sons (see the Hugh Baird & Sons listing for further details), and the Argentine company Malteria Pampa S.A. in Buenos Aires. The ConAgra Malt network, as the group is known, is dedicated to earning a preferred position as a malt supplier to brewers worldwide.  Great Western uses two-row barley from a variety of growing regions in seven western states for a diversified supply of high-quality barley. Malting is performed at sites in Vancouver, Washington; Pocatello, Idaho; and Los Angeles, California. The diverse locations give Great Western advantageous distribution channels and a range of malting techniques from which to choose. The company’s drum house in Vancouver, Washington, still turns out malt to complement the more modern Saladin-style compartment houses operating in all three locations. The flexi-malt house also at the Vancouver site provides Great Western the versatility to produce wheat and Munich malts known throughout North America for their well- developed flavors and brewing quality. All maltings are supervised by knowledgeable maltsters with attention to detail.  To keep pace with craft brewers as the industry continues to grow, the company is currently constructing a new roast house and truck loading facility at its Vancouver location. Roast products are expected to become available during the fourth quarter of 1997.

Malts

Munich malt: Germinating Harrington malt is stewed, then kilned at 200 °F (93 °C) to lend color without introducing caramel or crystal flavors. Odor of mash: aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Northwest pale ale malt: Great Western’s high-color two-row malt. This product is a well modified malt derived from Klages and Harrington with colors ranging from 2.8 to 3.2 °L. Odor of mash: aromatic. Degree of clarity. clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Premium two-row malt: Great Western’s traditional premium-quality two-row malt is derived from well-modified Klages and Harrington barley. Odor of mash: aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Rye malt: Derived from Canadian-grown malted rye intended for the production of specialty products. Processed at the Thunder Bay facility of Canada Malting Company.

Vienna malt: Created using methods similar to those of Munich malt except that the Harrington malt is kilned at lower temperatures for a shorter period of time. Odor of mash: aromatic. Degree of clarity: clear. Rate of filtration: normal.

Wheat malt: Made from soft white wheat grown in the Pacific Northwest and malted for the production of traditional German Weissebier and American-style wheat beers. Odor of mash: aromatic. Rate of filtration: normal.

Meussdoerffer

Since 1852 the name Meussdoerffer has exemplified products of excellent quality made in accordance with the strict traditional rules of the Bavarian purity law.

Pilsen (1.4° – 2.0° L)
This light colored, well-modified malt is an excellent base for producing Pilsner and Lager type beers.

Vienna (2° – 3° L)
Higher kilning temperatures give Meussdoerffer Vienna malt its deep golden color and strong malt flavor. Best used in dark lagers and Marzen beer.

Munich (5° – 6° L)
Produced with graduated kiln temperatures resulting in higher color and aromatic notes, Meussdoerffer Munich may be used to enhance body and aroma of dark beers, such as Bock and Bavarian Dark.

Muntons P.L.C.

Muntons p.l.c is a privately owned company based in Stowmarket in Suffolk, England. The Stowmarket headquarters hosts key operations including malting, malt extraction, spray-drying, malt flour production, and homebrew canning. Two additional manufacturing plants in Yorkshire and in Scotland further serve Muntons’ clients in the Scottish distilling and UK brewing markets. Exports to more than 50 countries account for 40% of Muntons’ turnover.  Muntons continually invests in new plants and technology to keep itself in the forefront of European malting and malt extract manufacturing, as evidenced by the company’s new maltings in Bridlington (capacity: 80,000 tonnes, or 90,000 U.S. tons, per year) and by the investments Muntons has made during the past five years (totaling more than £2 million) in spray-drying equipment and malt extract production. Muntons p.l.c. is ISO 9002 certified.     All Muntons products are made exclusively of two-row UK barley grown in the best barley growing regions of the country. Typical of most English malts, Muntons malts are all well modified.

Black malt: A highly roasted malt used predominantly in dark beers such as browns, milds, porters, and stouts.

Cara pils: Lightly kiln-roasted crystallized malt developed to add subtle flavor and color effects to a wide range of beer styles.

Chocolate malt: Like the black malt, chocolate malt is used to produce dark beers such as browns, mild porters, and stouts and to color bitters and pale ales. Chocolate malt has a less bitter flavor than black malt. Well roasted.

Crystal malt: Kiln-roasted caramelized malt used to add nutty flavor characteristics to a wide variety of beer styles, from pale ales to stouts.

Lager malt: A slightly less highly modified malt suitable for lager- or Pilsener-style beers. Lightly kilned to ensure low color pick-up.

Mild ale malt: Well-modified, well-kilned two-row malt developed specifically for the production of mild or brown ales.

Pale malt: Premium-quality ale malt intended for the production of top-quality English and American ales.

Wheat malt: UK brewing-quality wheat malted until it is well modified. Suitable for wheat beers, Weiss beers, or as an adjunct

Dry Malt Extracts –  Spraymalt Range

Muntons Spraymalts are spray-dried liquid malt extracts made from brewing quality two-row English malts malted by Muntons and extracted at the Muntons plant. They are packed in 25-kg double-ply corrugated cardboard boxes with two plastic inner liners. They may subsequently be repacked into small sachets by wholesalers.

Amber: Cream-colored and full-flavored; will produce amber colored beers such as pale ales, IPAs, and bitters. Made of pale and crystal malts. Unhopped.

Dark: Light brown in color, with a strong flavor reminiscent of dark beers such as browns, milds, porters, and stouts. Made of pale, crystal, and chocolate malts. Unhopped.

Diastatic: A light color and a mild flavor. Offers more than 50 °Lintner of diastatic power.

Extra dark: Medium brown color, very full flavor. Will produce extremely dark beers such as porters and stouts only. Made of pale, crystal, and chocolate malts. Unhopped.     Extra light: The lightest, mildest flavored Spraymalt produced by Muntons. Made from lager malt, this product is ideal for addition to Pilseners, lagers, and summer ales. Unhopped.

Hopped dark: Light brown color, strong hopped flavor. Will produce export ales or dark beers such as browns and milds. Made of pale, crystal, and chocolate malts and UK hops.     Hopped light: Light color, gentle hopped flavor. Will produce lagers and light summer-style beers. Made of pale, crystal, and chocolate malts and UK hops.

Light: White color, mild flavor. Will produce lagers and Pilseners and can also be used to produce darker beers when used in conjunction with colored malts. Made of pale malt. Unhopped.

Medium: Tan color, high flavor. Will produce medium-colored beers such as bitters, brown, milds, and export- style beers. Made of pale and crystal malts. Unhopped.     Super dark: Dark brown color, intense flavor.

Wheat: White color, light flavor. This may be used in small quantities with any beer recipe to improve head style beers. Made of pale and crystal malts. Unhopped.

Super dark: Dark brown color, intense flavor.

Wheat: White color, light flavor. This may be used in small quantities with any beer recipe to improve head formation and retention. Especially well suited to the production of Weiss or white/wheat beers. Made from 55% wheat malt, 45% pale barley malt. Unhopped.

Others: Muntons also produces a line of extracts called Cedarex that includes Cedarex Light, Cedarex A, Cedarex B, Hopped Cedarex Light, Hopped Cedarex A, and Hopped Cedarex B. All are packaged in 25-kg steel pails (internally laquerred with a removable lid and stopper) or in 15-kg plastic jerry cans.

Adjuncts

Flaked barley: This barley has been steamed and rolled into flakes. Provides subtle flavor variations to beer recipes.

Flaked maize (corn): Maize is steamed and rolled into flakes. Used to introduce subtle corn characteristics to beer recipes.

Roasted barley: Roasted to achieve the highest possible color. Used to introduce a dry bitterness, predominantly in stouts.

Torrified wheat: This wheat has been steamed for an extended period of time. Used to introduce subtle flavor characteristics to beer recipes.

Pauls Malt

Pauls Malt started life in the first half of the 19th century, on the east coast of England, where its headquarters still reside today. The company has always been dedicated to the philosophy of quality at all levels of activity. Pauls’ ability to react quickly to customer requirements and supply malt reliably has helped them to build a reputation based on quality of product and service. Today, Pauls Malt is a modern company and the UK’s largest maltster, producing in excess of 500,000 tonnes of malt per year.

Pale Ale (2.5° – 3.5° L)
Made from two-row winter barley, Pauls Pale Ale malt is traditionally used in infusion mashing systems to produce amber colored pale ale, bitter, and export styles of beer.

Mild Ale (Dextrin Malt) (3.5° – 4.5° L)
Pauls Mild Ale malt is best suited for infusion mashing. Due to the kilning regime this malt goes through, the wort produced is higher in dextrin content than Pale Ale, resulting in a sweeter finished beer. Best used in Mild Ales and Brown Ales.

Caramalt (10° – 15° L)
Pauls Caramalt is produced much the same way as Pauls Crystal except that the final roast stage is extended at lower temperatures. The result is a malt that is lower in color, higher in extract, and higher in moisture. Best used in beers where sweetness is less important, but color enhancement and “dry” flavor is required.

Amber (15° – 25° L)
Unlike Crystal or Caramalt, the starting material for Amber Malt is a kilned Pale Ale malt. Amber Malt is typically used as a small proportion of the grist (0.5%) in the preparation of beers requiring some substantial depth of color.

Crystal Malts Pauls Crystal Malts are made from a two-stage roasting process that consists of a stewing period followed by high temperature curing. By careful control of these two stages, Pauls is able to generate a range of differently colored Crystal Malts, including Light, Medium, Dark, and Extra Dark Crystal.
Typically, Crystal Malts are used in brewing to add both color and sweetness.

Light Crystal (35° – 50° L)
Medium Crystal (55° – 65° L)
Dark Crystal (65° – 90° L)
Extra Dark Crystal (120° – 150° L)

Chocolate Malt (415° – 490° L)
Pauls Chocolate Malt is prepared from a low-modified Pilsen type of malt in a revolving roasting drum. As a result of this roasting process, the enzymes are completely destroyed, and dark, roasted colors are formed. Chocolate malt is used in dark ales and stouts to improve both color and flavor.

Black Malt (510° – 585° L)
Pauls Black malt starts with the same low-modified Pilsen malt. The main process difference between Black and Chocolate Malt is in roasting time and temperature. Black Malt is used in stouts to improve flavor and color.

Roasted Barley (600° – 680° L)
Pauls Roasted Barley starts with a good quality malting barley of even size. The roasting process is similar to that of Black Malt, with extra care taken to not char the grain. Roasted Barley will impart a dry flavor and substantial color.

Weyermann Malting Company

The 128-year-old malthouse housing Mich. Weyermann & Co. KG Malzfabrik is a protected historic site. But behind the red-brick turn-of-the-century exterior lies the modernized heart of the world’s leading manufacturer of specialty brewing malts. Presided over by Sabine Weyermann, a fourth-generation member of the founding family, and her husband, Thomas Kraus-Weyermann, the company benefits as much from its roots in the past as it does from its recent expansion and modern overhaul.  For over a century, Mich. Weyermann has been pursuing a policy of providing customizable, brandname specialty malts to breweries large and small, first in Bamberg and nearby regions, and currently to customers in virtually every continent of the world. Aided by new facilities and equipment, the company is better able than ever to serve its more than 900 customers worldwide, including future prospects in Asia and the United States. Tradition and up-to-date training are personified by the husband/wife team, both of whom graduated from the Weihenstephan school in nearby Munich, where Weyermann products are sampled by masterbrewers-to-be from all over the world.  About one-third of the company’s regular rotation consists of specialty malts; the remainder is geared toward keeping Germany stocked with Pilsener. All malting is done to individual order in amounts ranging from 25-kg sacks to export-size containers.

Malts

The Mich. Weyermann line of Bavarian-grown malts and brewing adjuncts is derived mostly from two-row Alexis, Steffi, and Krona barley or from quality wheat or rye. Mich. Weyermann uses Saladin box germination.

Acidulated malt (Sauermalz): Lowers the pH level of the wort, resulting in intensified fermentation and lightened Pils-like beer color for improved flavor stability and rounded flavor in Pilsener-style light beers, ales, and pale ales. Processed to yield an acid rate of 50-55%.

Melanoidin malt: Improves flavor stability, fullness, and imparts a reddish color to dark, amber, and red-colored beers. Kilned.

Pilsener malt: A sound base malt capable of producing superb Pilseners, lagers, ales, and all other beer types.

Roasted rye malt: Intensifies the color and typical aroma of dark, top-fermented beers. Produced from Humbold

German rye modified by kilning and roasting.

Rye malt: Derived from healthy, German-grown rye kilned to produce a typical smoked aroma. The malt is primarily used to create rye beers, smoked beers, Lagerbiers, and Kellerbiers.

Smoked malt (Rauchmalz): Best used to create smoked beers, Lagerbier, and Kellerbier. Derived from Alexis, Steffi, and Krona varieties.

Vienna malt: Used to create full-bodied, golden-colored, smooth-tasting beers such as Märzenbier, Maibock, festival beer, and various homebrews.

-The following malts are modified to varying degrees by kilning and/or roasting. They are used to intensify the typical aroma and color of dark beers, particularly German Altbiers, stouts, Bocks, and porters.

Carafa® 1, 11, and 111: Use in up to 5% of the grist.

Carafa® Special 1, 11, and 111: Produced from dehusked barley.

Munich Type 1, 11, and 11: Enhances the body and aroma of dark beers, Bocks, festival beers, and stouts.

The following malts comprise a blend of Alexis, Steffi, Krona, and Sissi barleys modified using roasting drums and kilning. Their chief contributions are improved foam, increased fullness, and intensified malt aroma.

Carafoam®: Best used to create Pilseners, lagers, and low- or nonalcoholic beers.

Carahell®: Imparts a fuller, rounder flavor and a deep, saturated color to pale ale, festival beer, Maibock, Hefeweizen, Schankbier, light and reduced-alcohol beers.

Caramünich® 1, 11, and I I I: Each malt imparts varying degrees of flavor and color. Best used to create Bocks, dark beers, festival beers, malt beers, nourishing beers, and Oktoberfest beers.

Wheat Malts

Weyermann also produces a range of wheat malts derived from Atlantis, Toronto, Kanzler, and Borenos varieties and subjected to varying degrees of kilning and roasting. Intended for top-fermented beers.

Roasted wheat malt I and 11: Intensifies the typical aroma and color of dark top fermented beers such as Altbier , Weizen, and Weizenbock.

Wheat caramel malt: Promotes fullness, emphasizes typical wheat malt aroma, and enhances the color of top- fermented beers, particularly Dunkelweizen and Hefeweizen.

Wheat malt dark and wheat malt pale: Typical top-fermented aroma produces superb slimmer, more sprightly wheat beers with aromas appropriate for the style. The dark wheat version is best used for Weizen, Kölsch, Altbier , Bockbier, and stouts. Use the pale wheat to create Kölsch, Altbier , wheat beers, Hefeweizen, and low- or nonalcohol beers.

Sinamar: Used to color different kinds of food, such as bread, drinks (beer, nonalcoholic drinks, tea), and pharmaceutical products. Sinamar is brewed according to the German purity law.